Hello everyone! I hope you all will be absolutely fine and having fun. Today, I am going to elaborate about the Introduction to LM324. It is an Operational Amplifier (Op-amp) consists of four channels. Its a low cost device having true differential inputs.For single supply applications LM 324 are superior to the other operational amplifiers. LM-324 is capable of operating at the minimum voltage up to 3V and at the high voltage levels up to 32V.
One of the major advantage of LM-324 is that common mode input range includes negative supply which eliminates the need of external biasing. Negative power supply voltage is also included in output voltage range. This device is lead (Pb) free, halogen free and RoHS compliant. It consists of four amplifiers per package. LM 324 real life applications include conventional amplifier circuits, transducer amplifier, DC gain blocks etc. Further detail about LM324 e.g. its pins configuration, thermal and electrical characteristics, its features and applications will be explained in detail later in this tutorial.
Introduction to LM324
LM324 is an operational amplifier consists of four channels. It is most commonly used amplifier due to its low cost factor. It consists of four amplifiers per package and is superior to other amplifiers for single supply applications. Negative power supply included in common mode input and output range eliminates the need of external biasing. It has several different applications e.g. DC gain blocks, transducer amplifiers, conventional amplifier circuits etc. LM 324 is shown in the figure given below.
1. LM324 Pinout
- We must know the description of each pin before using any of the devices for its appropriate use.
- LM-324 has fourteen (14) pins in total having different individual functions associated with them.
- All of the fourteen pins along with their names are given in chronological order in the table shown below.
2. LM324 Configurations
- Each of the pin should be clearly labeled, if someone is going to use any device for the first time or after a long time.
- Properly labeled pinout diagram of any device results in better understanding of its functionality.
- So, I have made a completely labeled diagram for LM 324 pinout, you can see it in the figure shown below.
3. LM324 Packages
- LM-324 has four different type of packages having different individual dimensions.
- The packages include TSSOP, SOIC, CDIP and PDIP.
- ALl of the above packages are given along with their dimensions, in the table shown below.
4. LM324 Ratings
- The current, power and voltage ratings of any device indicates its power requirements i.e. the amount of current and voltage at which a particular device starts its operation properly.
- The current, voltage and power ratings of LM-324 are provided in the table shown below.
5. LM324 Schematic Diagram
- The schematic diagram of a device helps to understand its internal functionality.
- I have provided a schematic diagram of LM-324 as shown in the figure below.
- From the above figure, you can see that LM 324 consists of four amplifiers per package.
- The inputs of these amplifiers are connected to the pin number 2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 12 and 13 respectively.
- The output of these amplifiers are connected to 1, 7, 8 and 14 pins.
6. LM324 Applications
There are different LM324 real life applications, a few of which are given below.
- Conventional amplifier circuits
- Transducer amplifier.
- DC gain blocks.
6. LM324 Proteus Simulation
- You should have a look at Automatic Street Light Project in Proteus, I have used LM324 in this simulation.
- I have also designed an LM324 Proteus Simulation so that you can get better idea of its working.
- I have designed a simple circuit in which LED goes ON or OFF automatically depending on LDR value.
- It’s OFF state is shown in below figure:
- You can see in above figure that I have attached LDR at inputs while the LED at its output.
- Variable resistor is used for controlling the sensitivity of LDR sensor.
- It’s ON state is shown in below figure:
- You can download this LM324 Proteus Simulation by clicking the below button:
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So that is all from the tutorial Introduction to LM324. I hope you enjoyed this exciting tutorial. If you face any sort of issues you can ask me in comments anytime you want, without even feeling any kind of hesitation. I will try my level best to solve your issues in a better way, if possible. Our team is also 24/ here to entertain you. I will explore further IC’s in my upcoming tutorials and will surely shre them with you as well. So, till then take care 🙂