Hi Guys! Hope you are doing well. We always strive to give the most relevant information as per your needs and demands. Today, I’ll discuss the details on the Introduction to RJ45. It is a type of standard connector mainly used for data transmission.
Almost all ethernet cables come with this connector on each end, and they, sometimes, known as RJ cables. The RJ in the connector stands for registered jack while 45 defines the number of interface standard.
In this post, I’ll cover each and everything related to RJ45, why it used, features, and main applications. Let’s dive right in and nail down everything you need to know.
Introduction to RJ45
- RJ45 is a type of connector, mainly used for Ethernet networking including connection with PC network cards, data switches, WiFi access points, and routers.
- It is connected to each end of Ethernet cables and acts as the main source for transferring data. RJ stands for registered jack and ethernet cables are also known as RJ cables.
- The most common standard for RJ cables is known as CAT5 (Category 5)
- In simple words, connectors at the end of ethernet cables are known as RJ45 connectors which also indicate how the cables are wired, while ethernet cables are termed as CAT5 (also RJ cables) which show the maximum speed the cable can attain.
- RJ connector comes with eight pins which indicate it can house eight wires inside. All these wires come in different colors i.e four are in solid color while the remaining four are stripped. These wires are combined in twisted pairs that help in reducing the crosstalk and canceling EMI.
- These cables are not shielded and are merely twisted for noise reduction.
- CAT cables are mostly used in networking and can handle bandwidth around 100mbps.
- These cables fail to work in high-speed environments, in that case, CAT5 is widely replaced by CAT6.
- RJ45 cables deem feasible for both long and short distance, and apart from supporting ethernet protocol, they also work for ATM and serial ISDN T1 and E1.
- RJ45 come with 8 wires and only 4 of them take part in the communication where pin 1 and 2 are used for data transmission while pin 3 and 4 are used for receiving data. (only in ethernet interface)
- In serial and ISDN protocols, all pins take part in the communication and are wired in a straight through configuration.
- Don’t get confused between RJ connectors and RJ ports. Both are the part of RJ protocol where connectors serve as a (male) connector and port that receives the connector is known as (female) port.
RJ45 Pinout and Wiring Standards
RJ cables are wired in two ways named T-568A and T-568B. Wiring standards in both of them are different and listed below.
- Both wiring schemes are equally practiced and commonly supported by most of the devices, however, T-568A is preferred over other.
Following figure shows the pinout of RJ45 (T-568A).
Following figure shows the pinout of the RJ45 (T-568B).
- In some networking applications, crossover ethernet cable is a prerequisite which contains T-568B at one end and T-568A on the other end.
- This cable is mainly used in computer-to-computer connections.
Difference between RJ45 and RJ11
- Both connectors are different in terms of size, wires, and applications.
- RJ45 is relatively large as compared to RJ11 and mainly used to build a connection with routers, computers, XBoxes, hardware firewalls and play stations. It comes with 8 wires.
- While RJ11 is smaller in size, comes with 4 wires and mainly used for connection with telephone, modem, and fax machine.
- Although RJ11 comes in smaller size and can fit in the RJ45 slot, however, it is not recommended to use this practice. Doing so can damage the slot and affect the overall working of the device in which it is plugged in.
Types of Ethernet Cables
Ethernet cables are widely used for telecommunication and networking purpose. They come in different types based on nature and data transmission speed they can carry along the length of the wire. RJ45 connectors are connected on both sides of the cables that act as a source of data transmission. Following are the main types of Ethernet cables used for networking and telecommunication purpose.
CAT-1. It stands for category 1 that doesn’t support TIA (telecommunication industries association). It is mainly used for standard telephone wiring and ISDN.
CAT-2. Similar to CAT-1, this type of wiring is not recognized by TIA. It is mainly used for token ring wiring and capable of carrying data at the rate of 4Mbit/s. This is the old version of cable wiring and widely abandoned by advanced cable categories.
CAT-3. This cable wiring is widely supported and recognized by TIA/EIA. It is mainly used for data networks and can carry data at the rate of 100Mbit/s. However, this type of wiring is also becoming obsolete because of less data transmission speed and frequency for carrying out different functions at the decent pace.
CAT-4. This type of cable wiring is not supported by TIA. It is widely used for token ring networks with the capability of supporting frequency up to 20MHz.
CAT-5. Category 5 cables were introduced with the intention of providing more speed as compared to their predecessors. They can transmit frequency up to 100MHz and are not recognized by TIA. This cable wiring uses two twisted pair and is not recognized by TIA. The CAT-5 cable is not recommended for recent applications, however, it is useful for 100Base-T and 1000Base-T networks as it provides suitable speed and frequency for the data networks.
CAT-5e. This cable wiring is almost similar to CAT-5 with some exemptions in terms of data transmission speed and TIA recognition. It is preferred for applications where speed is a major concern as it can support speed up to 125 Mbps. The physical appearance of this wiring is similar to CAT-5 and widely used for 100Base-T and 1000Base-T networks.
CAT-6. This cable wiring is recognized by TIA and stays ahead of other ethernet cables in terms of performance and speed i.e. supports up to 10Gbps. They come with an outer foil or braided shielding and cover less space as they are tightly wound as compared to CAT-5 and CAT-5e. The shielding minimizes the crosstalk and noise and protects the twisted pair of wires inside the cable. They can work and cover a distance of around 55 meters.
CAT-6a. It stands for Category 6 Augmented cable. They come with higher transmission speed, encompass maximum bandwidth and are less flexible than CAT-6 cables. They can carry more data along the length of the cable as compared to their predecessors and cover more distance without losing the bit of accuracy. The shielding is added in the wiring that protects the cable and helps in removing the crosstalk.
CAT-7. It supports frequency up to 600 Mbps and comes with four individually shielded pairs. It works best in many applications for carrying out data transmission at a decent pace. They are introduced for rated speed of around 10 Gigabit.
CAT-7a. These cables are used for augmented specifications that can support speed around 10 Gigabit. They cover frequency up to 1000 MHz and are quite identical to CAT-7 cables in terms of physical appearance and performance capability.
How to Connect Two Computers Using Ethernet Cables
It is very easy to connect two computers for data transmission using ethernet cables. The CAT-5 or CAT-5e crossover cables are widely used for this purpose and prevent from losing any data during transmission. These cables are quite identical to straight through cables but come with twisted wires on both ends. You can use the following steps to connect two computers using ethernet cables.
- Connect one end of the cable with RJ45 connector into the ethernet port of the computer. Plug the other end of the cable into another computer.
- Log in to one of the computers.
- Go to the search box at the bottom left of the computer and type “Network and Sharing Center” and click it.
- Then go to the “Change Adaptor Settings” on the top left side.
- Right click on the “Ethernet” and go to properties.
- Then select “Internet Protocol version 4 TCP/IPv4” and click properties.
- Select the IP address and subnet mask at the two computers as mentioned below.
To check the connection, restart both PC and use the below instructions.
- ping 192.168.0.2 -t: from the second PC
- ping 192.168.0.1 -t: from the first PC
Right click on this PC option and click on “Change Settings” option.
- The “Workgroup” name should be identical in both PC, otherwise, ethernet connection won’t work.
- If you want to share whole drive, just right click on the drive you want to share and select share with “Advanced Sharing Options” and check the box beside share this folder option and click “OK” to apply changes.
- RJ45 are mainly used in ethernet cables for data transmission. They come in two types i.e. T-568A and T-568B.
- As compared to the RJ11 connector, RJ45 comes with more applications including ethernet networking, industrial automation, and telecommunications.
That’s all for today. I hope I have given you everything you need to know about RJ45. However, if you are feeling skeptical or have any question, you can approach me in the comment section below. I’d love to help you in any way I can. Feel free to keep us updated with your valuable feedback and suggestions, they help us provide you quality work so you keep coming back for what we have to offer. Thanks for reading the article.