Introduction to Artificial Intelligence
- John McCarthy is known as the father of Artificial Intelligence. According to him:
"Artificial Intelligence is the science and engineering of designing intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs."I have been teaching Artificial Intelligence to engineering students for five years and I normally assign them projects at the end of their course and the one, I really enjoyed was "virtual psychiatrist", designed by a group of 5 students. You can tell that robot your symptoms/condition and it will tell you the cure and measures. During it's evaluation, the virtual Psychiatrist asked "What's your problem?" I replied, "I am fine" but still it suggested numerous cures and several therapies. I laughed and told the students that this software will not qualify for the Turing test. Now, you must be thinking, what's a Turing Test, so let's have a look at it:
What is the Turing Test?In 1950, a great computer scientist, Alan Turning, wrote a research paper and provide a mechanism to determine, whether machines actually think or not. To examine it, he gave an experiment, which is called the Turing Test. Below is the illustration of this experiment followed by the details:
- As you can see in above figure, we have:
- A as an artificially intelligent software/hardware,
- C as an invigilator,
- and B as a human.
- C is supposed to ask different questions from both the agents i.e. A & B, and determine which one is AI software and which one is human.
- A is supposed to deceive the Human Questioner i.e. C and make it believe that it's a human.
- If C is failed to detect that which one is an AI software among A & B, then this software will be called as an "intelligent software" because it answered those questions, to which only a human is supposed to answer.
- This test is called the Turing test.
- SHAKEY was the first artificial intelligent robot, whose job was to pick the product and then drop it on a specific spot, but again if I ask the recipe of the cookies, it won't tell me. :D
How Human Brain works ?At an early age or the very beginning, shape of the human brain was different, but as this specie started evolving, it developed the learning capacity, got smarter and intelligent. We have a very complicated connection network (bellow is the image) in our brain which is built by trillions of cells, the smallest cell of the brain is called "Neuron" and it also contains trillions of connections, so if we would able to utilize the processing of brain in software, the would become intelligent too, Artificially Intelligent. For example, if you look closely at the figure above, this is the basic unit of cell where dendrites, which provide connections, then a cell in the center (nucleus) where decisions are being made and then there is an axon cell, which is responsible to give the decision as an output. Same as we make a flowchart where we have inputs, decision-making centers, and we have an output based on that decision. So, if we connect those intelligent unit cells many times, we can design a Neural Network, which is also the hot topic of the research, nowadays. The Neural Network
- Now, you must have the basic idea of what neurons are, so now, let's have a look at a simple neural network, as shown in below figure:
- The first layer of the neural network is the input layer.
- The second layer is the hidden layer.
- And finally, we have the third layer, the output layer.
Examples of AI softwareLet's understand neural network with the help of a simple project.
- Once I have designed a project in MATLAB, where I need to detect Horse in different images.
- So, I have added a lot of horse pictures in different postures & angles in database.
- Then using those images, I have trained my software to differentiate between horse and other animals.
- Finally, once I have completed my horse recognition algorithm, then I tested it with around 100 new images of animals.
- It has recognized horse in 80 images but was unable to detect in remaining 20 images.
- I will take you to the software IBM WATSON, which is designed by IBM and this software stood first in America's largest quiz show, Jeopardy, which was being played with the top two champions. A software won $100000mn, whoa!
- Let’s talk about Alpha Go, this software beaten the champion of that time.
- It will be an injustice, if we don't talk about Eugene Goostman, he has designed the first-ever software, which depicts a 13-year-old boy and it has qualified the Turing test. Though there are controversies about it, this is the only software that managed to convince 33 invigilators out of hundred that IT’S A HUMAN.