What is Chemistry?Chemistry is one of the most vital & fundamental branches of science, concerned with the deep study of matter, its properties, composition (chemical) and use. And you must know that everything around us is matter. It means Chemistry involves in our everyday life task, from cooking to cleaning. Chemistry is actually the mixture of physics and biology. Because of its fundamentally understanding with the basic and applied scientific disciplines. Now, let’s have a look at the proper definition of Chemistry.
- Chemistry deals with the study of elements (i.e. atoms, molecules, compounds, ions etc.) and their chemical composition, characteristics, structure, and chemical reactions.
- Chemistry also studies the chemical interaction (bonding) between elements, atoms and molecules. It studies the reasons of bonding and their effects.
- Further, chemistry is also concerned with the energies released or abosrbed by different molecules.
Why is Chemistry important?
- Chemical reactions are taking places every second around us. From the digestion food to making of food from plants, everything is happening due to chemical reactions. Our whole body is made up of chemical compounds. And it is Chemistry, concerned to study these reactions for our betterment. Let’s discuss the most common examples:
- The creams and sunscreens, we used in our daily life to protect our skin form UV radiation from sun, are made of organic and inorganic compounds, and directly related to Chemistry.
- The process of photosynthesis is a chemical reaction; plants use water, carbon dioxide and sunlight to prepare food.
- The detergents we are using for hygienic purpose are also examples of emulsion, which is also chemical reaction. The soaps are made from the chemical process call saponification.
Chemistry BranchesOn the base of the studying matters, changes and types of the systems, Chemistry is sub-divided into the following categories. Let’s discuss branches of Chemistry briefly for better understanding.
1. Organic ChemistryOrganic Chemistry is the field of study, mainly focuses on the characteristics study about carbon atom. Including the experimental study on the structure and composition of other atoms such as oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H) etc.
2. Inorganic ChemistryInorganic Chemistry is the branch of Chemistry, not focused on the study of carbon. But you know carbon is essential atom in many inorganic compounds. Therefore, there has been investigated another field of study is organometallic Chemistry, a mixture study between organic and inorganic Chemistry.
3. Analytical ChemistryThis branch of Chemistry is the insight study of elements in mixture form. Its main focus is to identify and analyze these materials. It invents the materials & methods to analyze these material. As well as discovered the separation techniques.
4. Physical ChemistryThe physical Chemistry is the branch of Chemistry to deeply examine the behavior of atoms, elements, chemicals, compounds and molecules, and proposed the fundamental laws of Chemistry.
5. Environmental ChemistryIt is basically the study of environmental chemical and their composition.
6. Bio-chemistryThis branch of Chemistry mainly focuses on discovering the inner information during the examination of biological systems using chemical laws. It also provides the revelation of the link between the functional properties and structure of biological systems.
7. Nuclear ChemistryIt is the type of Chemistry, concentrated in the experimental study about the radioactive elements, their reactions and properties. Simply, this field is all related with the study of radioactivity.
8. Biophysical ChemistryIt is the sub-discipline of Chemistry, basically deals with the biological macromolecules and their properties.
9. Polymer ChemistryIt is the field of Chemistry, fundamentally related on the study of formation of chemical, properties, and structure of macromolecules & polymers.
Chemistry top concernsChemistry also provides insight to the chemical bonds and formation of their interaction with each other. It studies the chemical bonding through which atoms are linked. There are 2 types of chemical bonds:
- Covalent bonds (also named as primary chemical bond).
- Metallic bonds.
- Ionic bonds.
- Hydrogen bonds.
- Van der Waals force.
Relationship of Chemistry with Other Areas of ScienceDue to the immense areas of concerns in the universe, science sub-divided into the following areas, mainly focus on the universal aspects. The primary three categories under science are discussed below:
1. The Formal SciencesAlso named as “language of science”. Because of its main focus on the studying of languages. For example, the logic and math are the example of this area of science.
2. The Natural SciencesThis category involves the experimental study about occurring of natural phenomena in the universe. Physics, Biology and Chemistry are lying under this discipline.
3. The Social SciencesThe social sciences studying the human nature and behavior as well as their relation with the societies. The main disciplines falls under this category are: Psychology, economy and sociology. Have a look on below picture; it will help you to understand the relationship of branch chemistry with other disciples of science.
Chemistry booksChemistry is one of my favorite subjects. Now I am going to share some famous and best reading text-books of Chemistry. You can download or buy these books, I am sure it will be worth reading Chemistry books.
1. An Introduction to General, Organic, and BiologicalIt is a precise and easy Chemistry book to understand written by Karen C. Timberlake. As form the name of book, you have got an idea about the content of this book. This book of Chemistry is all about the organic area of Chemistry as well the biological Chemistry. This book has revealed the relation of Chemistry with health and environment.
2. A Molecular Approach (4th Edition)This is the book of Chemistry, many institutes loved to recommend to their students. The written by if this book is Nivaldo J. Tro. It is generally a well written book, and got very fame. The written by explained about the data interpretation and analyses. It gives the digital and analytical experience to students.
3. Chemistry For DummiesLet’s talk about another impressive Chemistry book written by John T. Moore. This book explains all the chemical reaction happening in the formation of soap, oil and soda. This book provides insight study of chemical methods, techniques, basic principles and fundamental concepts of Chemistry. The language used also very simple and easy to understand for students.
Few other Chemistry booksSome other famous Chemistry Books are:
|Popular Books of Chemistry|
|1||Napoleon's Buttons: How 17 Molecules Changed History||Penny Le Couteur|
|2||The Elements: A Visual Exploration of Every Known Atom in the Universe||Theodore Gray|
|3||The Poisoner's Handbook: Murder and the Birth of Forensic Medicine in Jazz Age New York||Deborah Blum|
|4||Uncle Tungsten||Oliver Sacks|
|5||General Chemistry||Linus Pauling|
|6||A Chemical History of a Candle||Michael Faraday|
|7||A Short History of Nearly Everything||Bill Bryson|
|8||The 13th Element: The Sordid Tale of Murder, Fire, and Phosphorus||John Emsley|
|9||Blue Dreams: The Science and the Story of the Drugs that Changed Our Minds||Lauren Slater|
|10||The Disappearing Spoon: And Other True Tales of Madness, Love, and the History of the World from the Periodic Table of the Elements||Sam Kean|
|11||Molecules: The Elements and the Architecture of Everything||Theodore Gray|
|12||Chemistry of Space||David E. Newton|
|13||Periodic Tales: The Curious Lives of the Elements||Hugh Aldersey-Williams|
|14||Ingredients: A Visual Exploration of 75 Additives & 25 Food Products||Steve Ettlinger|
|15||The Alchemy of Air: A Jewish Genius, a Doomed Tycoon, and the Scientific Discovery That Fed the World but Fueled the Rise of Hitler||Thomas Hager|
|16||Theo Gray's Mad Science: Experiments You Can Do at Home - But Probably Shouldn't||Theodore Gray|
|17||The Double Helix||James D. Watson|
|18||Oxygen: The Molecule That Made the World||Nick Lane|
|19||Connecting the Drops: A Citizens' Guide to Protecting Water Resources||Karen Schneller-McDonald|
|20||Uranium: War, Energy and the Rock That Shaped the World||Tom Zoellner|
|21||Choked: Life and Breath in the Age of Air Pollution||Beth Gardiner|
|22||What Einstein Told His Cook: Kitchen Science Explained||Robert L. Wolke|
|23||Bottled Lightning: Superbatteries, Electric Cars, and the New Lithium Economy||Seth Fletcher|
|24||Strange Chemistry: The Stories Your Chemistry Teacher Wouldn't Tell You||Steven Farmer|
|25||The Electric Life of Michael Faraday||Alan W. Hirshfeld|
Popular Chemists of All TimesThere is a long list of famous scientist whom contributed the field of Chemistry. Let’s have a look of top chemists and their achievements below:
|1.||Amedeo Avogadro||First time give the idea about elements can exist in molecular form, as well as individual form. Also give Avogadro’s law.|
|2.||Jacob Berzelius||He is the founder of measurement of atomic weights of chemicals. He also revealed new elements i.e. thorium, cerium &. selenium|
|3.||Niels Bohr||He discovered the theory of quantum mechanics when he observed electrons orbiting around the shell.|
|4.||Robert Boyle||He founded the two sub-fields of chemistry, named as alchemy and mysticism. He also discovered many elements, defined them. He invented the Boyle’s law also known as first gas law.|
|5.||Lawrence Bragg||He invented the position of different atoms using x-ray diffraction in solids.|
|6.||Hennig Brand||He founded the elements, phosphorus. And was the first scientist in chemistry history, discovered the chemical element.|
|7.||Georg Brandt||He is the first Chemists who discovered the new metal ‘cobalt’. He proposed the theories for people of making gold.|
|8.||Robert Bunsen||He invented the following elements (cesium & rubidium). He also discovered the zinc & carbon batteries, he was the inventor of flash positioning. He also proposed hoe the geysers works.|
|10.||Marie Curie||He invented the radium and polonium elements. He gives s important information about radioactivity and radioactive elements. He first time performed the tumour treatment using radiations.|
|11.||John Dalton||He gives the Dalton’s theory, considered as the base of Chemistry. Moreover, discovered Gay-Lussac’s law with respect to volume, temp & pressure of gas.|
|12.||Democritus||He proposed the atomic theory about the motion interaction of tiny particles. He did search and study on the starts and their milky appearance.|
|13.||Empedocles||He gives the natural sciences theories, invented four elements.|
|14.||Michael Faraday||He invented the electromagnetic induction. More he discovered the Faradays law, link between the magnetism & light. He also explains the first room temp of a gas. And discovered benzene.|
|15.||Rosalind Franklin||He gives the experimental data about the DNA structure. He also discovered the two forms of DNA.|
|16.||Willard Gibbs||He invented the vector concept and modern science. He also focused on chemical thermodynamics.|
|17.||George de Hevesy||He discovered 72 elements. He also invented pioneered isotopes to find the chemicals process as well as biological one. He discovered about animals and plant utilization of chemical elements as nutrients.|
|18.||Fred Hoyle||He invented the naturally founded elements. And set them on the periodic table.|
Few remarkable ChemistsHere's the list of few other remarkable Chemists:
- Natalie Ahn, American.
- English Chemist, A. Aikin.
- H. C. Allen, American.
- German Chemist, R. Abegg.
- German Chemist, F. Accum.
- American expert, J. Alexander.
- Swedish Chemist, S. Arrhenius.
- American Chemist, P. Agre.
- American Chemist, A. Almutairi.
- American Chemist, H. Burton Adkins.
- Kuwaiti Chemist, F. Al-Kharafi.
- American Chemist, L. A. Cohen.
- American Chemist, E. Lucille Allen.
- S. Altman won Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
- V.Ashby, American.
- Fr. W.Aston won Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
- G. L. Anderson, American.
- Australian Chemist, A. Albert.
- B. Christian won Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
- American Chemist, A. J. Arduengo.
- American Chemist, B. Askins.
- German chemists, G. Agricola.
- Dutch Chemist, A. Eduard van Arkel.
- Physical English Chemist, J. Albery.
- Brazilian Chemist, O. A. Ceva Antunes.
- American N. Chemist, L. B. Asprey.
- Italian Chemist, A. Angeli.
- Johan August A., Swedish Chemist.
- German Chemist, K. Alder.
- Swedish Chemist, Ka.Aurivillius.
- English Chemist, F. Abel.