Hello Friends! I hope you’re having a great time reading my articles. Today, we are going to learn about a very comprehensive topic

**What is Mathematics?**Do you have an interest in math? Great! This tutorial will surely help you to know about Mathematics definition, branches of Mathematics, the importance of mathematics in our life, famous books of mathematics and popular mathematicians & their discoveries. The role of math’s in our daily life is like a

**building block**(essential), involves in our every regular activities. i.e. engineering, mobile devices, businesses etc. Even math is there during our sports time, if you ever noticed. Let’s take the example of our body where protein (amino-acid) is the building block. Without protein, our body can’t exist. Similarly, math plays the same role in every field of science. For instance, without math, engineers can’t build great buildings and scientists can’t develop advance machines. So, think about it for a second!

Let’s move on & further discuss **what is mathematics?**

## What is Mathematics?

Do you want to know why the need for mathematics arose? Math actually came because of the need of society. In ancient times, math was not that complex. The tribes use maths only for counting. With time they also start relying on math to calculate sun position. As you know, our needs have become more complex, thus math also becoming complex day by day.

### Mathematics Definition

- Mathematics is the branch of science, which deals with numbers, involves calculations and mainly focuses on the study of quantity, shapes, measurements etc.
- The greatest mathematician Benjamin Peirce defined math as “the science that draws the necessary conclusion”.
- In more simple words, math is the science, deals with structures, numbers, geometry etc.

### Why study mathematics?

In past, the study of math was very limited. And only 3 fundamental branches of mathematics were discovered. These were geometry, algebra and number theory. But in the modern age, several other branches have been discovered by mathematicians based on the main branches. We will discuss these branches later in this article. Here the point is that now mathematics has become a very vast and most discuss field of science. Now, mathematics got the title of **“queen of science”**. Math became now an inseparable part in our everyday life tasks.

Finally, let me conclude that mathematics is a vital tool in every field of science throughout the world. Such as:

- Natural science.
- Engineering.
- Medicine.
- Social sciences.

### Importance of Mathematics

Let’s see why mathematics is important for us. I will discuss some common examples of everyday routine. I must say, our day starts with math.

- During cooking food in the kitchen, we are able to measure every ingredient, just because of math.
- Going on shopping & paying cash involves mathematics.
- The hobbies like arts, gardening & playing, all need mathematics.
- Texting on phones & faxing also require math

## Branches of mathematics

Just like other fields of science, mathematics is also divided into the following branches. So, let us discuss them briefly.

### 1. Arithmetic

This is most oldest and fundamental branch of math. This branch deals with the basic operation & number. The basic operations are subtraction, addition, multiplication and division.

### 2. Algebra

Algebra is the type of arithmetic. Here, we find the value of unknown quantities, such as X,Y and Z. we usually used English alphabets (variables) as unknown numbers. Several formulas uses to solve the equations to calculate the unknown value. You must have solved algebra questions in high school education.

### 3. Geometry

The next branch we will discuss is geometry, the most practical branch considered. It deals with the construction of figures, shapes and their properties. The basics of geometry are points, lines, surfaces, angles and solids. In geometry, we used many mathematics tools such as scale & protector.

### 4. Trigonometry

Trigonometry is derived from Greek words trigon means triangle and metron refer to measurement. So, it is clear from the name that is the study of triangle sides and angles. You will get to learn this branch in higher education.

### 5. Analysis

This is a little complex branch of mathematics. It deals with the study of rate of change with respect to specific quantities. The base of analysis is Calculus.

### 6. Statistics

The statistic is the branch, deals with the collection of huge data, organize it and further analyze to get final results. Such as the population of any country estimated through this branch.

**Applications of Mathematics**

- Forecasting the Weather. Mathematics helps in predicting one of the most difficult task on earth.
- Reading of CDs and DVDs.
- MRI & Tomography.
- Use in Internet and Phones.
- Analysis of Epidemics.
- The estimation of glacier melting.
- Maps of the Earth.
- Cryptography.

## Popular Mathematicians

The role of greatest mathematicians in our life is remarkable. These are the mathematicians who made it possible to transfer electricity to the distance of thousands of kilometer enhance the computer technology, helps to reveal the DNA structure and still helping the scientist to explore the universe deeply. Let’s get to know the contributions of these great mathematicians.

| ||

No. | Mathematicians | Contributions |

1 | Srinivasa Ramanujan | He was one of the greatest mathematicians died at early age of 32. He calculated Euler–Mascheroni constant at the age of 16. He identified more than 4000 math identities. |

2 | Joseph-Louis Lagrange | He was known for his discoveries i.e. the number theory, Lagrangian mechanics and Celestial Mechanics. He also had remarkable contribution in the formation of Euler–Lagrange equation. Moreover, he is famous for his invention in analytical mechanics, helped the researchers to develop mathematical physics branch. |

3 | Andrew Wiles | He is a famous British mathematician, won Wolf Prize in 1995 and Abel Prize recently in 2016.He is popular for the formulating the Fermat’s Last Theorem. That was one of the complex problems in mathematics. |

4 | Alan Turing | He was known for his contribution such as Turing’s proof and Cryptanalysis of the Enigma. He won the Smith’s Prize in 1936.In second world war, his contribution was outstanding. It was him, whose cryptanalytic abilities improved the bombe and developed a faster decoding Enigma machine. |

5 | G.F. Bernhard Riemann | He is famous for his Fourier series and Riemann integral series. He worked on differential geometry, invent his own theory on higher dimensions. His contributions, known for Riemannian geometry. He was the founder of the Riemann mapping theorem. |

6 | David Hilbert | He was famous for his Hilbert’s problems and proof theory. He was the greatest mathematician, developed instruments in the field on commutative algebra. He had also contributed in the field of calculus (variations) & mathematical physics. He also worked in the field of physics. |

7 | Bernoulli Family | Bernoulli family had a special respect in mathematics. Johann and Jacob from Bernoulli family, were the first mathematician worked for calculus and invented Bernoulli numbers & Brachistochrone curve. |

8 | Issac Newton
| He was known for his Newton’s laws of motion as well as Newtonian mechanics & Calculus. He was considered as the father of mechanics. His thought and discoveries about gravitation force are accepted universally. He was the founder of Einstein’s theory of relativity. |

9 | Pythagoras | He invented Pythagorean theorem as well the founder of Theory of Proportions. The Pythagoras theorem was named after him. |

10 | Carl Friedrich Gauss | He won the Lalande Prize in 1809 and Copley Medal 1838.He was one of the most influential mathematicians in the ancient Greek. He worked for many mathematicians branches as well in physics. He has ability to solve arithmetic problems faster than anyone. Some of his inventions are Gauss’ Law & Theorema Egregium. He also estimated the non-Euclidean geometry. |

### List of popular Mathematicians

There are names of many other great mathematicians, I am goin to enlist here.

- Plato.
- Euclid.
- Eratosthenes.
- Hipparchus.
- Hypatia.
- Girolamo Cardano.
- Leonhard Euler.
- Carl Friedrich Gauss.
- Georg Cantor.
- Paul Erdös.
- John Horton Conway.
- Grigori Perelman.
- David Harold Blackwell.
- Jesse Ernest Wilkins.
- M. Euphemia Lofton Haynes.
- Joseph James Dennis.
- Wade Ellis.
- Clarence F. Stephens.
- Evelyn Boyd Granville.
- Marjorie Lee Browne.
- Georgia Caldwell Smith.
- Gloria Conyers Hewitt.
- Mary Rodriguez.
- Thyrsa Frazier Svager.
- Vivienne Malone-Mayes.
- Shirley Mathis McBay.
- Eleanor Green Dawley Jones.
- Geraldine Claudette Darden.
- Annie Marie Watkins Garraway.

## Popular Mathematics Books

Reading good books can open your mind to accept new light. There are so many math’s good books available out there. Let’s discuss must read mathematics books.

### 1. The Art of Statistics

This book is a comprehensive study about the stat tools. This book guide you how to use statistics formulas and tools properly. It also reveled the areas of study where stat can be used. I have read this book, and found it very useful to understand statists problems.

### 2. Do Dice Play God?

I really found this book rewarding, tells us about the basics of quantum mechanics. The author explains the complex problems of quantum theory deeply, even I have never read so deep guidance in other popular science books. Ian Stewart has already written so many math books. But this one is the must read math book.

### 3. Humble Pi

This is the most interesting book i ever read. Actually the author is the comedian, and he wrote math problems in a very funny way to attract the readers. But on a serious note, this book also solve many issues you will commonly found in math. So this is my third favorite math book.

The list is going on. As there are countless valuable mathematics books published. I couldn’t stop

myself from only suggesting three books. So, let’s get the name of few more popular books of mathematics.

### List of top mathematics books highly recommended

- Encyclopedia of Mathematics. By James Stuart Tanton.
- The four pillar of Geometry. By John Stillwell.
- The Maths of Life and Death.
- A Mathematical Introduction to Logic, Second Edition by Herbert Enderton.
- Calculus made easy by Silvanus P. Thompson.
- Introductory Statistics by Neil A. Weiss.
- Introduction to Algorithms, Third Edition by Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson and Ronald L. Rivest
- Categories for the Working Mathematician by Saunders Mac Lane.
- Principles of Mathematical Analysis, Third Edition by Walter Rudin.
- The Calculus Lifesaver: All the Tools You Need to Excel at Calculus by Adrian Banner
- Linear algebra done right by Sheldon Axler.
- Elementary number theory by Gareth A. Jones and Josephine M. Jones.
- Introduction to Topology and Modern Analysis by George F. Simmons.
- Abstract Algebra by David S. Dummit and Richard M. Foote.
- Basic Mathematics by Serge Lang.

I hope this article will help to get better understating of mathematics, its branches, popular books and mathematicians.