Hi, friends. I hope you are all well. Today we will discuss the SI ( International system of units) in detail. An international committee conference held in 1960 concurred on a set of definitions used to describe the physical quantities. This committee and the founded system are called System International (SI).

SI units are the measurement systems used generally to measure the standards.SI units play a vital role in measuring standard quantities in scientific and technological research.SI units are a set of basic 7 base units from which derived units are defined.SI units also play a vital role in modern metrology and now they become a part of the foundation of modern science and technology.SI units can be categorized into three types:

• Base units
• Supplementary units
• Derived units

Now we will discuss what SI base units are, their definitions, importance, and applications in detail.

## What are SI base units?

SI base units are the basic standard units explained by an international system (SI) of units. SI base units are known as the building block of the international system of units because all other units are derived from these basic standard units.

Base units are used to express the base quantities. And the other units are used to express the derived quantities which are derived from base quantities and units. The physical quantity and units are:

These SI units were globally accepted for measurement of the physical quantities.

## The basic definition of SI base units:

The basic definitions of the SI base units are given by the System international unit in detail below:

 Unit Measure Symbol Typical symbols Definition meter length m L,x,r, etc In the SI unit system the, meter is the unit of length and it is defined as in 1/299, 792,458 seconds the light travels in a vacuum. In 1983 this definition was presented and it is based on the fundamental constant of nature, the speed of light. meter is the most precise unit which are used in the measurement. second Time s t The unit of time is second and it is defined as the transition changing between the two levels of hyperfine at the ground state of the cesium atom. This definition was presented in 1967 and also defined as 9,192,631,770 duration of radiation in between the transition. Now to measure the accurate time the unit second is used in science. Kilogram mass kg m SI of mass in kilogram it is defined by IPK as the international prototype of kilogram and in simple words, it is defined as the mass of a substance in thousand grams. Now this unit is widely used in measurements of the mass of an object. Ampere Electric current A I, i The unit of the electric current is ampere. The definition of unit electric current is based on the charge of a proton and the elementary charge e, and conductor forces. But with time it can change and be explained on the fixed numerical value of elementary charge. Now the precise and accurate measurement of electric current in the unit ampere can be used. kelvin Thermodynamic temperature k T The unit of thermodynamic temperature is kelvin. It was defined based on the Boltzmann constant(k) and also relates to the average kinetic energy of the gas. but now it can be defined on the basis of a fixed numerical value of the Boltzmann constant to measure the accurate temperature with the help of their unit Kelvin. candela Luminous intensity cd lv The SI unit of luminous intensity is candela and it is used to measure the power of light. It is defined as measuring the radiation of the frequency of 540x10hertz which is emitted from monochromatic sources and also measures the radiant intensity of 1/683 watt per steradian. Now to measure the accurate and exact power of light candela unit is used. mole Amount of a substance mol n The SI unit of the amount of a substance is mole.it is defined as atoms or molecules in the carbon-12 isotopes, which is based on Avagord’s number 6.022x10 power 23. But now it is based on the fixed numerical value of Avagord’s number to measure the accurate amount of the substance with the unit mole.

These definitions are the old and basic definitions but with time and with more research these definitions can be revised and new definitions of these base units are presented.

## Revised and new definitions of SI base units:

In 2016 November 16 the old and basic definitions of base units can be revised but it can be effective from 2019 May 20. The redefinition of the meter can be revised by understanding the physical artifact and it is not based on the property of nature. Other basic units like candela, kilogram, mole, and ampere can be connected to the revised definition of kilogram which is presented by an international prototype of the kilogram, by storing the cylinder of platinum-iridium in a vault near Paris.

The revised and new definitions of SI base units are given below.

 Units measures Dimensions Symbol Revised and new definitions Origin Candela Luminous intensity J cd The SI unit of luminous intensity and the power of light is candela, symbol cd. It is stated and based on the fixed numerical value of luminous efficacy of 540×1012 Hz frequency of monochromatic radiation. It can also expressed in W−1 or also in kg−1 m−2 s3 The principle and the base of the candle power are the standard properties of burning candles which can emit light traditions through burning. Ampere Electric current I A The SI unit of electric current is the ampere, symbol A. it can based and taken from the fixed numerical value of e (elementary charge) which is equal to 1.602176634×10−19 and also expressed in units C and s. Specifically the unit ampere at internationally defined and based on the electrochemical. In the electrochemical process, the current is required to store 1.118 mg of silver per second to form the solution of silver nitrate. Mole Amount of a substance N mol The SI unit of the amount of a substance is a mole and the symbol is mol.  Mole is based on Avagord’s numbers so one mole is equal to  6.022 140 76 × 1023 And this value is the fixed numerical value of Avagord’s number which can’t be changed. And their unit is per mol. To express the substance the symbol which is used is n. N is for the elementary entities that can be specified and the elementary entities may be an atom, molecule, ion or electron, or a group of particles. 1 g/mol is equal to the molecular weight which is divided by the molar mass. meter Length L m The SI unit of length is meter, symbol is m. it is defined on the principle of the speed of light in vacuum c which is equal to 299792458 and expressed in unit ms-1. The median arc through Paris is measured and the total distance which is measured is equal to 1/100000000 from Earth to the north pole. Kilogram mass M kg The SI unit of mass is the kilogram, the symbol is kg. It is based on the fixed numerical value of the Planck constant which is represented by h and equal to 6.62607015×10−34 and their unit is Js. One liter is equal to thousands of m3. The mass of water is equal to the temperature of melting ice. Kelvin Thermodynamic temperature ⊝ k The SI unit of thermodynamic temperature is kelvin, symbol is k. It can also defined based on the Boltzmann constant the fixed numerical value which is equal to 1.380649×10−23  And their unit is  JK-1. The Kelvin and the Celsius scale both are used in thermodynamicscic temperature and 0k is equal to the absolute zero. Second Time T s The SI unit of time is second, symbol s. The fixed numerical value of cesium defined it. Because the ground state hyperfine transition frequency of cesium is equal to 9192631770 and its unit is hertz which is expressed in s-1. Each day has 24 hours and each hours have 60 seconds and 1 second is equal to the 24x60x60 of each day.

## Application and Importance:

Application and importance of all seven base units in detail are given below:

### Meter:(the unit of length)

• Physics and engineering: to measure the accurate length in constructing the building and in designing the machinery.

• Astronomy: to measure the distance between the objects and the measurement is precise and accurate.

• Everyday life: in our daily life meter is used to measure the length of an object and also measure the distance or the plot size.

### Candela:(unit of luminous intensity)

• Lighting industry: to measure the precise and accurate luminous intensity which is important in designing and creating a lighting system.

• Cinematography and photography: to achieve the effective and desired visual effects accurate measurement of light is essential.

• Vision science: to understand or design human vision aids measurement of luminous intensity is very essential.

### Second:(the unit of time)

• Synchronization: accurate and precise measurement of time is very important for clocks at the global level and also shows an impact on telecommunication and in many other social systems.

• Daily life: in daily life time measurement is essential to make a schedule and to do work on their given time.

• Physics experiment: to measure the velocity, speed, and distance time measurement is essential to do work or experiment on time.

### Kilogram:(the unit of mass)

• Medical field: to make the dosages and the multivitamins the mass of a substance is essential to measure because if the mass is increased to make a low dose of medicine then it can show very adverse effects.

• Science and industry: to make the chemicals in industry accurate and precise measurement of a substance is very important.

• Trade and commerce: for fair trading the measurement of mass is essential.

### Mole:(the amount of substance)

• Environmental science: in the environment, the amount of pollutants and harmful gases can be measured through a mole.

• Chemistry: In the chemical reaction of chemistry the mole is the essential and fundamental part of a reaction or the chemistry experiment

• Pharmacology: in the pharmaceutical industry the precise and accurate measurement of mole is essential to make chemicals and medicines.

### Ampere:(the unit of electric current)

• Medical equipment: many medical machines like x-ray machines, MRIs, and CT scans can measure the precise measurement of electrical current.

• Electrical engineering: to measure the precise and accurate current in electronic devices.

• Power system: to distribute the electric current in the electrical system and to operate the power system the measurement of electric current is essential.

### Kelvin:(the unit of thermodynamic temperature)

• Industrial process: in industries to manufacture the material the accurate and precise measurement of temperature is vital.

• Climate studies: the global and climate temperature change every time and to measure the accurate temperature of climate, the temperature can be measured accurately.

• Scientific research: in physics, chemistry, and many other science subjects in which we can perform experiments, the measurement of temperature is essential to run the process of experiment.

## Interrelationship and derived units:

The foundation of all SI units in the SI system are the seven base units which are interlinked. To measure the complex and difficult physical quantities derived units are used which are a combination of seven base quantities. Some examples are given below:

•  Watt(W): this is the unit of power and can derived from the base unit (J/s).

• Newton(N): this unit is used for force and derived from the base unit meter, seconds, and kilogram.

• Joule(J): this unit is used for energy and derived from base units like seconds, kilograms, and meters.

These are some examples of derived units that are derived from the combination of different base quantities.

## The evolution and future of SI units:

The SI unit's definition can be changed with time to increase precision and stability. because these units can be used in modern science and technology and also in meteorology processes.

The SI system can do more research to evolve modern technology and discover more precise and effective results of their research to make the bright future of SI units. Potential future changes could involve redefining units based on even more fundamental principles or developing new measurement techniques that further enhance precision and accessibility.

## Conclusion:

The international system of units(SI) plays a vital role in physics, scientific research, pharmaceutical industries, and our daily lives. The seven base units are the fundamental and the foundation of the international system of units. These units help to measure all the quantities in a very effective and the results are precise and accurate. With time science and technology progress the si system also tries to maintain more precise and relevant changes in their research.