Hello Friends! I hope you all are doing well. Today, I am going to give you a very basic and detailed tutorial on What is Physics? We will also discuss Physics branches, popular Physics books, famous physicians, great inventions in the field of Physics etc. When I was thinking of writing this tutorial on Physics, the first thing came to my mind was "Big Bang Theory" (the TV show, not the event itself). Sheldon was a Physicist & in season finale, he won Nobel Prize in Physics for super asymmetry. In the 19th century, scientists have divided Physical Sciences in 5 major sections:
• Physics.
• Chemistry.
• Metorology.
• Astronomy.
• Geology.
Physics is considered as the most important branch of Science & mainly focuses on energy & matter. Let's discuss in detail: What is Physics?

## What is Physics?

Fundamentaly, this universe is divided into 3 main categories, named as:
• Extremely-Large matter: It involves planets, galaxies etc.
• Extremely-Small matter: It involves micro-structures i.e. electrons, neutrons, protons etc.
• Middle-Sized matter: It involves wide range of matter ranging from small objects to Earth itself.
Physics is all about this middle-sized matter & their energies. In physics, we analyse all naturally occuring processes/laws and their effects on matter i.e. motion laws, space & time quantum, forces holding objects together, transmission of energy, physical properties, compositions of different matter etc. So, now let's have a look at a proper Physics Definition:

### Physics Definition

• Physics(originated from Latin word Physica means ‘natural thing’) is a field of science, mainly focuses on matter & energy and the relationship between them.
• It provides the mathematical formulas for all natural activities happening on our planet earth.
• Physcics involves the study of all natural laws defined for matters or forces i.e. heat, light, magnetism, sound, nuclear etc.
• Physics is considered as the most fundamental branch of science and is divided into numerous sub-branches.
• Physics has also provided many fundamental laws which formulated the basis of other science branches.

### Physics Overlapping

• Physics has also overlapped with other fundamental branches of science & formulated new advanced branches, few of them are:
• BioPhysics.
• AstroPhysics.
• Physical Chemistry.
• Health Physics.
Now, let's answer this question: Why is Physics important?

### Why is Physics important?

Plysics plays an important role in improving our everyday life. If we look around, we will find application of Physics in almost every thing. Our transport system is the foremost application of Physics as it involves inertial laws, thermodynamics knowledge, vehicle's structure etc. We have seen a rapid growth in science which has become possible mainly because of Physics. Let's have a look at few important daily life fields using Physics Laws:
• Transportantion vehicles.
• Irrigation systems.
• Home appliances.
• Communication systems.
• Measuing Instruments.
• Medical Equipments.
• Weather Forcasting.
• Defensive Systems.
• Nuclear Energy.
• Space Travel.

## Branches of Physics

As we have discussed, physics deals with middle-sized matter so its applications range from a simple tyre to nuclear energy and thus it is further divided into several branches. Few of Physics branches are as follows:

### 1. Mechanics

• It deals with motion of objects, why & how is motion produced in different objects and what are the effects of different types of motions.

### 2. Thermodynamics

• It deals with heat energy, how is heat transffered from one object to another and effects generated by heat.

### 3. Sound

• It studies the physcial behavior of sound energy, how is it produced, travelled and transformed.

### 4. Light (Optics)

• It studies the physical behavior of Light energy, how is it produced, travelled and transformed.

### 5. Electricity & Magnetism

• It studies the physical behavior of electrical charges i.e. either moving or at rest, alongwith its relationship with magnetism.

### 6. Atomic Physics

• It deals with the study of physical structure & activities of atoms.

### 7. Nuclear Physics

• It deals with the study of nuclei & the energy it releases under different circumstances.

### 8. GeoPhysics

• It studies the structure, behavior, forces etc. related to Earth.

### 9. Biophysics

• It is the deep experimental study of biological problems using laws of physics.
• One of the outstanding and remarkable discoveries happened under this branch is the DNA structure by James Watson.

### 10. Astrophysics

• It deals with the study of universe i.e. planet, galaxies, and stars using laws of physics.

### Other Physics Branches

Few other physics branches are as follows:
1. Cosmology
2. Plasma Physics
3. Condensed Matter
4. General physics
5. Optics & Lasers
6. Mathematical Physics
7. Nonlinear Dynamics.
8. Quantum Mechanics
9. Mathematical Methods
10. Statistical Mechanics and Entropy
11. Numerical Methods or Simulations
12. Classical Mechanics
13. Nuclear Physics
14. Atomic Physics
15. Astronomy
16. Special Relativity
17. Fluid Dynamics
18. General Relativity

## PopularBooksofPhysics

Although numerous books have been publised, discussed difference aspects of Physics or Physicists. Here I have mentioned two of my favorite Physics books:

### 1. WhatisReal?

• What is Real? This Physics book tells the gripping stories about the ideology and the courage of physicists, who stand up for the truth.

### 2. FortheLoveofphysics

• This book provides the wide range of information about different energies and its forms.

### Few other Physics Books

Some other famous physics books are listed below:
1. You have changed my life.
2. The Feynman Lectures on Physics.
3. Physics of the Impossible.
4. Seven Brief Lessons on Physics.
5. The Physics of Time.
6. Relativity: The Special and the General Theory.
7. Astrophysics for People in a Hurry.
8. The Universe in a Nutshell.
9. The Strange Theory of Light and Matter.
10. A Brief History of Time.

## Greatest Physics Scientists(Physicists) of all Times

Physics has evolved with time. There's a long list of real world heroes, who have made Physics their passion and because of their fruitful efforts, today we have lucuries in our lives. Let's have a look at few of world's greatest physicists:
Greatest Physics Scientists(Physicists) of all Times
No. Physicist Name Achievement
1 Albert Einstein Theory of Relativity(E=mc2), Quantum light theory, Avogadro's Number etc.
2 Isaac Newton Laws of motion, Gravitational force etc.
3 Nikola Tesla Worked mostly in Electrical Energy.
4 William Gilbert Proposed that Earth is a giant magnet.
5 Willbrod Snell Laws of refraction i.e. Snell's Laws.
6 Galileo Galilei worked in astrophysics.
7 Blaise Pascal Famous for Pascal's Laws.
8 Daniel Bernoulli Famous for Bernoulli's Theorem. (Fluid Flow)
9 Christiaan Famous for Hagens Principle. (Geometrical Theory for Light)
10 Benjamin Franklin He discovered electrical charges.
11 Leonard Euler Worked in Fluid dynamics, Lunar Theory, Mechanics etc.
12 Henry Cavendish Worked in GeoPhysics.
12 Joseph Louis Worked in Mechanics.
12 Robert Milikan Worked on charges & cosmic rays etc.
12 C. Wilson worked in GeoPhysics.

### Few remarkable Physicists

Here's the list of few other remarkable physicists:
• Sir ORichardson
• LErnest Rutherford
• Guglielmo Marconi
• Johannes Stark
• SChandrasekhara Raman
• CGlover Barkla
• Albert Einstein
• Otto Hahn
• Max von Laue
• P. ACarruthers
• James Franck
• V. Franz Hess
• Peter Debye
• Niels Bohr
• D. JThouless
• Gustav Hertz
• Erwin Schrödinger
• Otto Stern
• K. M. Georg Siegbahn
• PWilliams Bridgman
• JBaptiste Perrin
• GABaym
• Stanley JBrodsky
• Haim Harari
• KSThorne
• Francesco Iachello
• Gabriele Veneziano
• Chris Quigg
• Howard Georgi
• J. Dirk Walecka
• Nathan Isgur
• Edward Witten
• R. Charles Merkle
• O. Wallace Greenberg
• K. Eric Drexler
• Nathan Seiberg
• Stephen Wolfram
• John NBahcall
• Stanley Mandelstam
• Peter Higgs
• A. Arima
• Joel Lebowitz
• J. PSchiffer
• T. AWitten
• Kenneth Fowler
• Tullio Regge
• M. SDresselhaus
• Daniel Kleppner
• Jeffrey Goldstone