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introduction to cd4046, working of cd4046, features of cd4046, applications of cd4046Hey Guys! Hope you are doing well. Welcome you onboard. Today, I’ll discuss the detailed Introduction to CD4046 which is a Micropower Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) that comes with a common comparator input and a common signal input amplifier between a low-power linear voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) and two different phase comparators.

The phase locked loop, as the name suggests, is a loop where the phase of the output signal is compared with the phase of the input signal using a phase detector between two signals.

  • Phase detector operates with the aim to adjust the two signal and make them quite in line with each other so they generate signals with the same magnitude.

In this tutorial, I’ll walk you through the main details related to CD4046 by breaking down the whole nitty-gritty in simple steps, making it easy for you to grab the main concept. Let’s jump right in.

Introduction to CD4046

CD4046 is a Micropower Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) that comes with a phase detector for comparing the phase of the output signal with the input signal and adjust them in order to make the matching signals from both ends.

  • It comes with a common comparator input and a common signal input amplifier between a low-power linear voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) and two different phase comparators.

The input signal can be operated in two ways: capacitively layered with a self-biasing amplifier for creating a small voltage signal or directly coupled for a large voltage signal.

  • The VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) is an integral part of the IC that mainly generates oscillated frequency based on the applied input. The generated frequency is then used for phase modulation.

The chip features two phase comparators i.e. Phase Comparator I and Phase Comparator II. They are also known as Phase Detectors.

introduction to cd4046, working of cd4046, features of cd4046, applications of cd4046


Phase comparator I is nothing but an exclusive OR gate that produces a digital, maintaining 90° phase shifts at the VCO.

  • It is important to note that both signal input and comparator input are set at 50% duty cycle where Phase Comparator I can lock the input frequencies that match with the magnitude of the VCO center frequency.

Similarly, Phase comparator II is known as an edge-controlled digital memory network and maintains a 0° phase shift between signal input and comparator input, providing a lock-in and digital error signal.

CD4046 Features

Following table shows the main features of CD4046.

Number of Pins16
Min Supply Voltage3 V
Max Supply Voltage18 V
Number of Phase Comparators2
VCO linearity1%
Power consumption70 µW at VCO Frequency= 10 kHz and VDD = 5 V
TechnologyCMOS Phase Locked Loop
Operating Temperature Range-55 to 125 ºC
  • These ratings will help you make a final decision before you intend to incorporate this device into the relevant project.
CD4046 Pinout

Following figure shows the pinout of CD4046.

introduction to cd4046, working of cd4046, features of cd4046, applications of cd4046

  • VSS represents the ground voltage while VDD represents the supply voltage.
  • A 5.2-V Zener diode is added with the aim to supply regulation if required.
CD4046 Pin Configuration

Following table shows the pin configuration of each pin.

Pin#Pin NamePin Description
1Phase PulsePhase pulse applied to the IC
2Phase Comp I OutAn output of Phase Comparator I
3Comparator INInput at the Comparator
4VCO OUTOutput Signal at VCO
5INHIBIT Allows to electronically turn on or off the output voltage power supply
6C1ACapacitor 1 connected to VCO
7C1BCapacitor 2 connected to VCO
8VSSGround Pin
9VCO INInput Signal at VCO
10Demodulator OUTExtracting the original signal
11R1Resistor 1 connected between VCO and Supply Voltage
12R2Resistor 2 connected between VCO and Supply Voltage
13Phase Comp II OUT
Generated oscillated output at Phase II Comparator
14Signal INInput Signal applied to the Phase Comparator I
15Zener5.2 V Zener diode for voltage regulation
16VDDVoltage supply pin

 

  • I hope this configuration will help you understand the major functions associated with each pin on the chip.
Absolute Maximum Ratings

Following figure shows the absolute maximum ratings of CD4046.

introduction to cd4046, working of cd4046, features of cd4046, applications of cd4046




  • These are the stress ratings above which the device may stop working. Before you start your project, make sure your technical requirements match with the ratings of the device otherwise it may cause more damage than good.
  • As mentioned above DC supply voltage ranges between -0.5 to 18, however it is advised to keep the DC supply between 3 to 15 V for better results, similarly recommended operating temperature range lies from -55 to 125 ºC.
  • The ground voltage is zero unless specifically recommended by the manufacturer.
CD4046 Dimensions

Following figure shows the dimension of CD4046.

introduction to cd4046, working of cd4046, features of cd4046, applications of cd4046

  • The dimensions in the numerator are given in inches and dimensions appearing in the denominator are given in millimeters.
  • It is a low weight tiny chip that can easily stand fit in the hard to reach places.
Applications

CD4046 comes with a variety of applications aiming to compare the output signals with the input signals and produce them with the same frequencies. Following are the major applications of CD4047.

  • FSK modulation
  • Voltage-to-frequency conversion
  • Motor speed control
  • FM demodulator and modulator
  • Frequency discrimination
  • Frequency synthesis and multiplication
  • Tone decoding
  • Data synchronization and conditioning

That’s all for now. I’ll be writing more tutorials on some basic components mainly used in engineering and technology. If you are unsure or have any question, you are most welcome to approach me in the section below. I’d love to help you the best way I can. Feel free to feed us with your valuable feedback and suggestion, so we keep producing quality content and you keep coming back for what we have to offer. Thanks for reading the article.

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