Matrices are an essential topic in different fields of study, especially in mathematics, where you have a bulk of data and want to organize, relate, transfer, and perform different operations on data in a better manner. We have studied a lot of types and operations on the matrices and have worked on different types with the help of MATLAB. Today, we are here to present the applications of the matrices in different fields of study to clarify the importance of this topic. So, have a look at the list of topics we are going to learn. Yet, first of all, I am going to describe what a matrix is.

## What is a Matrix?

In the fields of physics and mathematics, there is the use of different types of numbers in groups of various types. In order to organize the data into a manageable format, matrices are used. A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers that are enclosed by a square matrix (or, in some cases, parentheses).

The information about the numbers of rows and columns is called the order of matrices, and on the basis of this information, we can recognize different types of matrices. The types, in turn, are used in different applications because of their unique behavior. By changing the order of the matrix, the properties and working of the matrices changes according to the changes. Mostly, square matrices are used in different applications.

It is interesting to know that in the early days of matrices, these were considered arrays. With the passage of time, when they were involved more and more in different research and methodologies, matrices gained popularity. Because of the ease of usage, this popularity is not going to end. So, have a look at the different types of fields where matrices are used in different ways but before going into details, you must know, these fields are not only dependent on the matrices but the normal functioning of these fields include the usage of matrices in different ways.

## Applications of Matrices

As we have said earlier, matrices are used to deal with massive amounts of data better. The matrices that we have learned and seen till now are of very minimum order, and these are kept simple for the better concepts in easy ways, but in practice, we have seen that there are gigantic matrices with complex data in them, and at that point, it is difficult to solve and save them manually. Have a look at the different fields of practical life where matrices are used in a routine.

### Matrices in Cryptography

Data cryptography is an important department in data communication in which the encryption of the data is an important process. It is done by using different keys and codes to secure the message and communication in a better way. A large amount of data is sent and received by different parties, and the encryption techniques also require some other space as well. Matrixes are used to make sure that all the data and its codes are stored in a better way. These matrices

save the keys of the encrypted data to decrypt them on the receiving end and in this way, matrices play a key role in cryptography.

### Use of Matrices in Wireless Communication

We all know that in wireless communication, usually air is used as the medium to send and receive messages from one point to the other. In this process, matrices are used to detect, extract, and process the information about the message that is to be delivered. Here are some other uses of matrices in this department:

Signal estimation and the detection of the problem during communication are done with the help of matrices.

• Sensor array signal processing involves the matrices.

• In the processing and representation of a digital image, matrices have a great role.

• Underwater surveillance

With the help of matrices, wireless communication is done efficiently, and understanding the code becomes easy. Think about the case if the data of different queries are not used in the form of a matrix, then finding the data of a simple command would never be organized.

### Matrices in Mathematics

The use of matrices in the field of mathematics is not new to us. We all know that it is a basic concept in mathematics and a great variety of concepts of matrices are used in different ways while solving mathematical problems. One of the major use in mathematics is a solution of linear equations with the help of matrices. The complex and time taking equations can be easily solved with the help of rules of matrices in different ways.

In engineering and other related fields of mathematics, matrices are the basic concepts and it is used in different ways to make the working of the system better manner. We have seen different cases in which the matrix is used as the alternative method to find the unknown value because it is a more organized way and the great number of research resulted in different theorems and laws therefore, the long calculations are minimized to their result by simply using the theorems.

### Matrices in Computer Graphics

One of the amazing applications of matrices is in the form of computer graphics where the pictures and the graphics comprise pixels and the array of these pixels and points are arranged in the form of matrices for easy transformation and working. Overall, you can say that in computer graphics, each digital image is treated as a matrix. Therefore, different types of operations used in the matrices are applied to the graphics with great ease. Not only in the dimensions and the sizes but also for the colors of the images, matrices are used to store and reuse the values for the images and graphics. For example, in the CNN technique, different types of matrices are used. For the greyscale image, only a 2D image is used and if one wants to get the RBG system image, there is a need for a 3D matrix.

### Three Dimensional Games and Matrices

Gaming is one of the most important filed in graphics and when we talk about three-dimensional games, matrices are important there in order to alter the 3D space in different ways. For this purpose, if we use simple words, the conversions between the 2D and 3D matrices are used by different techniques, and therefore, we get the final output. Moreover, the quality of the result depends upon the way you use the data in different ways.

### Matrices and Geology

During the seismic survey in geology, matrices are used in a great way. For real-time surveys of different areas of common real problems such as mortality rate, population, the number of people in different areas of the world, and other specific counting related to real-life problems involve the use of matrices because it becomes easy to deal with great data using different operations on the data.

### The Matrices in the Field of IT

In different Information technology organizations, matrices are used to execute and search the different queries. The IT security system needs to have a secure way to deal with all the information and once saved, data is to be retrieved in an efficient way with the help of minimum commands. If the data is not present in the form of tables, or we should say, in the form of matrices, organizing, storing, retrieving, and dealing with the data will be like a nightmare.

### Using Matrices to Find the Collinear Points

It is one of the procedures in mathematics in which the values of collinear points are found with the help of matrices. If it seems simple at this time then you should think of the case where gigantic collinear points are found with the help of matrics with the help of different software and these points are in return used in different ways.

## Pre-allocation of Matrices in MATLAB

As we have said, matrices make the working of daily life data and complex calculations easy. We read different types of commands about the matrices when we were learning about their functioning and therefore, we can now use them in a simple program to prepare the code in which the matrix is used for the pre-allocation of the data in a simple way by using limited lines of codes. Trus, have a look at the code given below:

### Code:

p=zeros(5)

p(1,:)= [ 3 6 2 8 7]

for i=3:4

p(i,:)=p(i-1,:) +1

end

### Understanding the MATLAB Code

In this code, we have used a simple function of zeros and used a loop to execute the whole instruction. Let us discuss both of them in detail:

Zeros Function

It is a pre-defined function of MATLAB that is used to make a null matrix of the required dimensions by using just a simple signal command. For the null matrices, there is the condition that the square matrix should be used.

For loop in Matrix

There are certain loops used in the MATLAB and with the help of this for loop, we just have to simply follow the syntax given below:

for index = value

statement

end

Here, the index value is the starting point where we want to start the matrix formation and the statement is the condition that we want to be executed while the formation of our matrix. If it is not clear right now in your mind, just have a look at the flow of the program.

• First of all, we have used the zeros function to allocate the space in the memory according to the requirement. We have used the square matrix which has the order of 5 by 5.

• I wanted to pre-allocate the values in the matrix row after the row therefore, we simply changed the values of the matrix p formed before from 0 to other values defined by us. If you are not familiar with this function, have a look at the notation given below:

p(a,b)

Where,

a=number of row

b=number of column

As we did not want to alter any value in the columns so we have used a colon in its place.

• By using the for loops, we have specified that the index value starts from 3 and ends and 4.

• In the next step, we are using these index values and specifying to MATLAB that we want to change the values of the 3rd and 4th rows only and the program ends.

• MATLAB does this task step by step and changes the null or zero values of the matrix p into the required pre-allocated values in the matrix.

• For the best concepts, we have changed the values of just two rows and the other matrix remains the same.

Larger versions of these kinds of procedures are used in diverse ways to recognize, store, and use the data in a better way, and with the help of this short program, we have seen a glimpse of a real-time application in which a matrix can be used to pre-allocate the different values and people can have benefit from it.

Trus, today, we have learned a lot about matrices and their applications. We have read great information about matrices in the past lectures and it was quite interesting to know how can you use these basic pieces of information in a better way and how people are working on the matrices to make their daily tasks easy during their professional life. We have seen different departments where matrices are making the work easy and more efficient. Most of them can not work without using matrices. Moreover, one must have the idea that many times we use matrices in our daily life unintentionally. As we have said earlier, 3D games require the involvement of a matrix. So, when your child is playing the game, he or she is enjoying the application of the matrices without knowing it. In the end, the small program was helpful to understand how little programs and the working of matrices are helpful to perform different tasks automatically.