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Introduction to arduino nano, intro to arduino nano, pin diagram of arduino nano, applications of arduino nano, arduino nano pinout, difference between Arduino nano and Arduino uno, arduino nano specificationsHi Friends! I hope you are doing fine. Today, I am going to give you a detailed Introduction to Arduino Nano. It is a Microcontroller board developed by Arduino.cc and based on Atmega328p / Atmega168.

Arduino boards are widely used in robotics, embedded systems, and electronic projects where automation is an essential part of the system. These boards were introduced for the students and people who come with no technical background.

Any kind of support and help is readily available by the Arduino community that is too easy to approach and sets you free from depending on others that may cost you bunch of dollars. I have also designed this video tutorial on Arduino Nano basics:

In today’s tutorial, I’ll try to discuss each and everything related to Arduino Nano i.e. its main features, Pinout, working, applications etc. So let’s get started:

No.Pin NumberPin Description
1
D0 – D13
Digital Input / Output Pins.
2A0 – A7Analog Input / Output Pins.
3Pin # 3, 5, 6, 9, 11Pulse Width Modulation ( PWM ) Pins.
4Pin # 0 (RX) , Pin # 1 (TX)Serial Communication Pins.
5Pin # 10, 11, 12, 13SPI Communication Pins.
6
Pin # A4, A5
I2C Communication Pins.
7Pin # 13Built-In LED for Testing.
8D2 & D3External Interrupt Pins.
Other Arduino Boards:

You should also have a look at these other Arduino board, you might find them interesting as well. Compare their features and find the most suitable one for your project. Here’s the list of other Arduino boardsz

Introduction to Arduino Nano

  • Arduino Nano is a small, compatible, flexible and breadboard friendly Microcontroller board, developed by Arduino.cc in Italy, based on ATmega328p ( Arduino Nano V3.x)  / Atmega168 ( Arduino Nano V3.x).
  • It comes with exactly the same functionality as in Arduino UNO but quite in small size.
  • It comes with an operating voltage of 5V, however, the input voltage can vary from 7 to 12V.
  • Arduino Nano Pinout contains 14 digital pins, 8 analog Pins, 2 Reset Pins & 6 Power Pins.
  • Each of these Digital & Analog Pins are assigned with multiple functions but their main function is to be configured as input or output.
  • They are acted as input pins when they are interfaced with sensors, but if you are driving some load then use them as output.
  • Functions like pinMode() and digitalWrite()  are used to control the operations of digital pins while analogRead() is used to control analog pins.
  • The analog pins come with a total resolution of 10bits which measure the value from zero to 5V.
  • Arduino Nano comes with a crystal oscillator of frequency 16 MHz. It is used to produce a clock of precise frequency using constant voltage.
  • There is one limitation using Arduino Nano i.e. it doesn’t come with DC power jack, means you can not supply external power source through a battery.
  • This board doesn’t use standard USB for connection with a computer, instead, it comes with Mini USB support.
  • Tiny size and breadboard friendly nature make this device an ideal choice for most of the applications where a size of the electronic components are of great concern.
  • Flash memory is 16KB or 32KB that all depends on the Atmega board i.e Atmega168 comes with 16KB of flash memory while Atmega328 comes with a flash memory of 32KB. Flash memory is used for storing code. The 2KB of memory out of total flash memory is used for a bootloader.

Introduction to arduino nano, intro to arduino nano, pin diagram of arduino nano, applications of arduino nano, arduino nano pinout, difference between Arduino nano and Arduino uno, arduino nano specifications

  • The SRAM can vary from 1KB or 2KB and EEPROM is 512 bytes or 1KB for Atmega168 and Atmega328 respectively.
  • This board is quite similar to other Arduino boards available in the market, but the small size makes this board stand out from others.
  • Following figure shows the specifications of Arduino Nano Board.

Introduction to arduino nano, intro to arduino nano, pin diagram of arduino nano, applications of arduino nano, arduino nano pinout, difference between Arduino nano and Arduino uno, arduino nano specifications

  • It is programmed using Arduino IDE which is an Integrated Development Environment that runs both offline and online.
  • No prior arrangements are required to run the board. All you need is board, mini USB cable and Arduino IDE software installed on the computer. USB cable is used to transfer the program from computer to the board.
  • No separate burner is required to compile and burn the program as this board comes with a built-in boot-loader.
Arduino Nano Pinout

Following figure shows the pinout of Arduino Nano Board.

Introduction to arduino nano, intro to arduino nano, pin diagram of arduino nano, applications of arduino nano, arduino nano pinout, difference between Arduino nano and Arduino uno, arduino nano specifications

 

  • Each pin on the Nano board comes with a specific function associated with it.
  • We can see the analog pins that can be used as an analog to digital converter where A4 and A5 pins can also be used for I2C communication. Similarly, there are 14 digital pins, out of which 6 pins are used for generating PWM.
Pin Description

Vin. It is input power supply voltage to the board when using an external power source of 7 to 12 V.

Introduction to arduino nano, intro to arduino nano, pin diagram of arduino nano, applications of arduino nano, arduino nano pinout, difference between Arduino nano and Arduino uno, arduino nano specifications
5V. It is a regulated power supply voltage of the board that is used to power the controller and other components placed on the board.

Introduction to arduino nano, intro to arduino nano, pin diagram of arduino nano, applications of arduino nano, arduino nano pinout, difference between Arduino nano and Arduino uno, arduino nano specifications

3.3V. This is a minimum voltage generated by the voltage regulator on the board.

Introduction to arduino nano, intro to arduino nano, pin diagram of arduino nano, applications of arduino nano, arduino nano pinout, difference between Arduino nano and Arduino uno, arduino nano specifications





GND. These are the ground pins on the board. There are multiple ground pins on the board that can be interfaced accordingly when more than one ground pin is required.

Introduction to arduino nano, intro to arduino nano, pin diagram of arduino nano, applications of arduino nano, arduino nano pinout, difference between Arduino nano and Arduino uno, arduino nano specifications

Reset. Reset pin is added on the board that resets the board. It is very helpful when running program goes too complex and hangs up the board. LOW value to the reset pin will reset the controller.

Introduction to arduino nano, intro to arduino nano, pin diagram of arduino nano, applications of arduino nano, arduino nano pinout, difference between Arduino nano and Arduino uno, arduino nano specifications

Analog Pins. There are 8 analog pins on the board marked as A0 – A7. These pins are used to measure the analog voltage ranging between 0 to 5V.

Introduction to arduino nano, intro to arduino nano, pin diagram of arduino nano, applications of arduino nano, arduino nano pinout, difference between Arduino nano and Arduino uno, arduino nano specifications

Rx, Tx. These pins are used for serial communication where Tx represents the transmission of data while Rx represents the data receiver.

Introduction to arduino nano, intro to arduino nano, pin diagram of arduino nano, applications of arduino nano, arduino nano pinout, difference between Arduino nano and Arduino uno, arduino nano specifications

13. This pin is used to turn on the built-in LED.

AREF. This pin is used as a reference voltage for the input voltage.

PWM. Six pins 3,5,6,9,10, 11 can be used for providing 8-pit PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) output. It is a method used for getting analog results with digital sources.

SPI. Four pins 10(SS),11(MOSI),12(MISO),13(SCK) are used for SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface). SPI is an interface bus and mainly used to transfer data between microcontrollers and other peripherals like sensors, registers, and SD card.

External Interrupts. Pin 2 and 3 are used as external interrupts which are used in case of emergency when we need to stop the main program and call important instructions at that point. The main program resumes once interrupt instruction is called and executed.

I2C. I2C communication is developed using A4 and A5 pins where A4 represents the serial data line (SDA) which carries the data and A5 represents the serial clock line (SCL) which is a clock signal, generated by the master device, used for data synchronization between the devices on an I2C bus.

Introduction to arduino nano, intro to arduino nano, pin diagram of arduino nano, applications of arduino nano, arduino nano pinout, difference between Arduino nano and Arduino uno, arduino nano specifications

 

Communication and Programming
  • The Nano device comes with an ability to set up a communication with other controllers and computers. The serial communication is carried out by the digital pins like pin 0 (Rx) and pin 1 (Tx) where Rx is used for receiving data and Tx is used for the transmission of data. The serial monitor is added on the Arduino Software which is used to transmit textual data to or from the board. FTDI drivers are also included in the software which behave as a virtual com port to the software.
  • The Tx and Rx pins come with an LED which blinks as the data is transmitted between FTDI and USB connection to the computer.
  • Arduino Software Serial Library is used for carrying out a serial communication between the board and the computer.
  • Apart from serial communication the Nano board also support I2C and SPI communication. The Wire Library inside the Arduino Software is accessed to use the I2C bus.
  • The Arduino Nano is programmed by Arduino Software called IDE which is a common software used for almost all types of board available. Simply download the software and select the board you are using. There are two options to program the controller i.e either by the bootloader that is added in the software which sets you free from the use of external burner to compile and burn the program into the controller and another option is by using ICSP (In-circuit serial programming header).
  • Arduino board software is equally compatible with Windows, Linux or MAC, however, Windows are preferred to use.
How to reset Arduino Nano Board?

There are two ways to reset the board i.e. electronically or programmatically.

In order to reset the board electronically, you need to connect the reset pin of the board with any of digital pins on the controller. Don’t forget to add 1K or 2K Ohm resistor while setting up this connection. Now, use the digital pin as an output and keep it HIGH before the reset. Once the reset is required, set this digital pin to LOW. This method is very useful because using it sends a hardware reset signal to the controller once the digital pin is set to LOW. You can use the following program to reset the controller electronically.

Once you upload the program, open your Arduino Serial Monitor that shows output as follows.

Introduction to arduino nano, intro to arduino nano, pin diagram of arduino nano, applications of arduino nano, arduino nano pinout, difference between Arduino nano and Arduino uno, arduino nano specifications

Another method we can use to reset the board is by software only without using any hardware pin. Nano board comes with a built-in function known as resetFunc(). The board will reset automatically as we define this function and then call it. Without using any hardware pin you can upload the following program to reset the board programmatically.

As you open the Arduino Serial Terminal you will get the output below.

Introduction to arduino nano, intro to arduino nano, pin diagram of arduino nano, applications of arduino nano, arduino nano pinout, difference between Arduino nano and Arduino uno, arduino nano specifications

However, this method comes with some limitations. Once the board is connected to the computer, the board will be reset each time the connection is laid out between the board and the computer. So, it is preferred to reset the controller electronically using a digital pin.



Difference between Arduino Uno and Arduino Nano
  • Both Arduino Uno and Arduino Nano come with same functionality with little difference in terms of PCB layout, size and form factor.
  • Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on Atmega328 and comes with 14 digital I/O pins out of which 6 are PWM. There are 6 analog pins incorporated on the board. This board comes with everything required to support the microcontroller like USB connection, Power jack, 16MHz oscillator, reset button and ICSP header. You don’t require extra peripheral with the board to make it work for automation.
  • It is a complete ready to use device that requires no prior technical skills to get a hands-on experience with it. You can power it by using DC power jack, battery or simply plug it to the computer using a USB cable to get started.
  • Arduino Nano is small and compact as compared to Arduino Uno. It lacks the DC power jack and comes with Mini USB support instead of regular USB. Also, Nano board comes with two extra analog pins i.e. 8 pins as compared to 6 analog pins in Uno board. Nano board is breadboard friendly while Uno board lacks this property.
  • However, both devices run at 5V, come with a current rating of 40mA, and 16MHz of the clock frequency.

Introduction to arduino nano, intro to arduino nano, pin diagram of arduino nano, applications of arduino nano, arduino nano pinout, difference between Arduino nano and Arduino uno

Applications

Arduino Nano is a very useful device that comes with a wide range of applications and covers less space as compared to other Arduino board. Breadboard friendly nature makes it stand out from other board. Following are the main applications of the board.

  • Arduino Metal Detector
  • Real-Time Face Detection
  • Medical Instruments
  • Industrial Automation
  • Android Applications
  • GSM Based Projects
  • Embedded Systems
  • Automation and Robotics
  • Home Automation and Defense Systems
  • Virtual Reality Applications

That’s all for today. I hope you have got a clear idea about Nano board. However, if still you feel skeptical or have any question, you can approach me in the comment section below. I’d love to help you according to best of my knowledge and expertise. Feel free to keep us updated with your valuable feedback and suggestions, they help us provide you quality work that resonates with your requirements and allows you to keep coming back for what we have to offer. Thanks for reading the article.

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