Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,Hello guys! I hope you’re all in a good mood today because we are going to review the design of an interesting project today. We’ll be looking to design 4-way traffic lights in such a way that their delay is variable and is dependent upon the traffic density. This project is of intermediate difficulty level for people studying in undergrad engineering school with electronics, electrical and mechatronics as their major. It is also for the people learning Arduino and basic circuit design on their own or through some course. We have already designed a Simple 4-Way Traffic Light Control using Arduino and today we will make it smart by adding a variable delay.

Variable 4 Way Traffic Light:

As you all already know the importance of traffic lights and their usage has solved a number of traffic problems, traffic is becoming denser on each road in the whole world by the hour. This leads us to consider traffic density at such roads as well. A number of different solutions have been developed in recent times to help with this problem such as roundabouts. This is done so to ensure the safety of vehicles on road and of people walking on pedestrian walks. With the world going towards automation and autonomous systems, this is the right time to switch traffic lights to an autonomous traffic light system too and make the system intelligent.

Software to Install:

We will be going through how to make an autonomous traffic system by using Arduino as a microcontroller. However, we’re not making an actual system rather we will be making a simulation of the said traffic system on a circuit simulating software Proteus. So make sure you already have the latest version of Proteus installed on your PCs and laptops. If not, you should first install the Proteus Software by following the embedded link. Proteus is open database software, meaning people can easily make their own circuit simulating libraries for the software and can easily integrate those libraries. This helps in making the software versatile and easy to use. You can easily add your own components or download libraries of components and place them within the software.

To start working with this project, you need to install and include the following libraries on your Proteus software:

  • Arduino Library for Proteus: This library includes all the microcontroller-based programming boards made by the company Arduino.cc. This allows you to program on the Arduino software and after that, you can see the implementation of this code in Proteus simulation.
  • LCD Library for Proteus: LCDs are displays that can be used to display text or values being used in a certain code. These LCDs come in two sizes, namely a 16×2 and 24×4. LCDs are controlled by the Arduino board.
  • Ultrasonic Sensor Library for Proteus: Since we are using an ultrasonic sensor as well in this project for which Proteus does not have a built-in component, you would need to download its library as well.

Project Overview:

This is a smart 4-way traffic light system. The pedestrian lights work such that whenever a certain traffic light is green its opposite pedestrian lights turn on. An addition of ultrasonic sensors have been made in the traffic light sequence. One ultrasonic sensor is placed at each traffic light. Each ultrasonic sensor controls the time of their respective green traffic light. When the ultrasonic sensor output is high, the traffic light opens for one second, when the ultrasonic sensor output is intermediate the traffic light opens for two seconds and when the ultrasonic sensor output is low the traffic lights open for 3 seconds.

The main components and their use in this project is given below:

  • Arduino Mega: We have used Arduino mega in this project and recommend using an Arduino mega as well. This is because there are about 40 digital pins required to perform communication between the microcontroller and only an Arduino Mega fulfills that requirement.
  • Traffic Light Module: Proteus provides an in-built module for simulating traffic lights and we will use this instead of using RGB lights to create a better effect.
  • Ultrasonic Module: This module is not built-in, but information to integrate this module with Proteus has been given above. This module has a test pin in order to simulate it and works just like real life.
  • LCD: Liquid crystal display will be used to show the time in which the traffic light remains on.

Components Needed:

  • Arduino Mega
  • Traffic Lights
  • Green and Red LEDs
  • Variable resistors
  • LCD
  • Ultrasonic Sensor

Component Details:

We will go through the details of some of the important components being used in this project.

Arduino Mega:

Arduino is an open-source programmable board that serves as a microcontroller and processes information based upon inputs and gives information to actuators in terms of output. Arduino Mega is based upon the chip ATmegaGA2560 and has 53 digital I/O pins.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working, Figure 1: Arduino Mega

LCD:

Liquid Crystal Displays used in electronics are of two basic sizes, 16×2 and 24×2. These represent the number of columns and rows of the LCD. Each pixel can store one character in it. It is also known as a character LCD. It comes equipped with a backlight. The intensity or glow of the backlight can be controlled by attaching a potentiometer at specified pins.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 2: LCD display

Ultrasonic Sensor:

An ultrasonic sensor uses SONAR technology to identify objects. It is basically used to find the distance of objects from the sensor. The ultrasonic sensor works by sending out ultrasonic waves and when these waves or parts of waves hit an object, they are reflected backward and the time from their propagation to their return is then noted. This time is then converted into the distance because we already know the speed by which those waves are traveling.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 3: Ultrasonic Sensor

Proteus Simulation of Variable Traffic Lights:

In order to simulate this project on Proteus software, we will first make the circuit diagram on Proteus. After that, we will write our code on Arduino IDE software and integrate it with the circuit made in Proteus.

Open Proteus and open a new project. Import the following components in your Proteus worksheet.

Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working, Figure 4: List of components

Place the component in your worksheet as illustrated in the figure below:

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 5: Placement of components

After placing the components, make the connections as follows:

  • Connect 0,1 and 2 digital pins of Arduino to red, yellow and green of traffic light 1 respectively.
  • Connect 3,4 and 5 digital pins of Arduino to red, yellow and green of traffic light 2 respectively.
  • Connect 6,7 and 8 digital pins of Arduino to red, yellow and green of traffic light 3 respectively.
  • Connect 9,10 and 11 digital pins of Arduino to red, yellow and green of traffic light 4 respectively.
  • Connect 12and 13 digital pins of Arduino to red and green LEDs of pedestrian light 1 respectively.
  • Connect 14 and 15 digital pins of Arduino to red and green LEDs of pedestrian light 2 respectively.
  • Connect 16 and 17 digital pins of Arduino to red and green LEDs of pedestrian light 3 respectively.
  • Connect 18 and 19 digital pins of Arduino to red and green LEDs of pedestrian light 4 respectively.
  • Ground the negative terminals of all LEDs.
  • Connect one end of a variable resistor to the Vss pin of LCD.
  • Connect the other end of the variable resistor to the input.
  • Connect the input pin of the variable resistor with the Vee pin of LCD.
  • Ground the RW pin of LCD.
  • Connect RS pin of LCD to 22 digital pin of Arduino.
  • Connect E pin of LCD to 23 digital pin of Arduino.
  • Connect D4, D5, D6 and D7 pin of LCD to 24, 25, 26 and 27 digital pins of LCD respectively.
  • Connect the test pin of ultrasonic sensors to their respective potentiometers.
  • Connect the trigger pin and echo pin of the ultrasonic sensor of traffic light 1 to 28 and 29 digital pins of Arduino respectively.
  • Connect the trigger pin and echo pin of the ultrasonic sensor of traffic light 2 to 30 and 31 digital pins of Arduino respectively.
  • Connect the trigger pin and echo pin of the ultrasonic sensor of traffic light 3 to 32 and 33 digital pins of Arduino respectively.
  • Connect the trigger pin and echo pin of the ultrasonic sensor of traffic light 4 to 34 and 35 digital pins of Arduino respectively.

With this, your circuit connections are complete and we will now move on to the firmware setup of this circuit.

Arduino Code:

We have divided the Arduino code in 3 segments:

  • Declaration Code
  • Void setup
  • Void loop

We will look at these sections separately now.

Declaration Code:

The first step in the code is the declaration of variables that we will utilize in our program. At first is the declaration of ultrasonic sensor pins and setting them up with their respective pins of Arduino board. The syntax of this code is as follows.

Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 6: Ultrasonic declaration code

Now we will include the library of LCD into our Arduino program, you can download this library from within the software. After that we will declare the LCD by defining the LCD pins. The syntax for which is as follows:

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working, Figure 7: LCD declaration

In the next step, we will declare traffic light variables and define their Arduino pins.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 8: Traffic light variable declaration

Now, we will declare the variables of pedestrian LEDs and then allot them their Arduino pins being used in the circuit.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 9: Declaration of pedestrian LEDs

Now, there are two variables being used for each ultrasonic sensor for the calculation of their distance and time duration. We will declare those variables now.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 10: Declaration of variables being used for calculations

Void Setup:

Void setup is the part of Arduino program that only runs once, in this section the program that only needs to run once is put, such as declaring pins as output pins or input pins.

Only the echo pins of ultrasonic sensor are input pins while all other pins are going to be output pins for this project.

We will first set up ultrasonic pins as follows:

Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working, Figure 11: Defining Ultrasonic pins as I/O for the Arduino Board

Now we will declare traffic light pins as output pins. The syntax for this is given as follows:

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 12: Setup of Traffic light Pins as Output

Now we will setup our pedestrian LEDs.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 13: Setup of Pedestrian LEDs as Output

Now we will initialize our LCD, this basically tells the microcontroller to start the LCD and give power to it. The syntax is given below.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 14: Initializing LCD

Void Loop:

This part of Arduino Program runs in a loop and consists of the main code of the program in which all the calculations are being done.

In the first part of the program, we will set the trigger pin of the first ultrasonic sensor to low and high. This would generate a pulse and send out a wave. After that we will read a pulse input from the echo pin. This will give us the duration in which the wave was propagated and returned. After that we will calculate the distance from the duration of the wave.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 15: Syntax of 1st Ultrasonic Sensor

This distance calculation is for our first traffic light. Now we will use the if loop to check our distance value.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working, Figure 16: If Loop for Signal 1

If the value falls between our set limit for the loop, the signal will turn green for three seconds. This will also be displayed on the LCD.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 17: Arduino Code

After that in our if loop, the yellow lights 1 and 2 will turn on to indicate transition.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 18: Arduino Code

Now we will use the if loop to check our distance value.

If the value falls between our set limit for the loop of intermediate traffic, the signal will turn green for two seconds. This will also be displayed on the LCD.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 19: Arduino Code

After that in our if loop, the yellow lights 1 and 2 will turn on to indicate transition.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working, Figure 20: Arduino Code

Now we will use the if loop to check our distance value again.

If the value falls between our set limit for the loop of low traffic, the signal will turn green for one second. This will also be displayed on the LCD.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 21: Arduino Code

After that in our if loop, the yellow lights 1 and 2 will turn on to indicate transition.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 22: Arduino Code

Now we will set the trigger pin of the second ultrasonic sensor to low and high. This would generate a pulse and send out a wave. After that we will read a pulse input from the echo pin. This will give us the duration in which the wave was propagated and returned. After that we will calculate the distance from the duration of the wave.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 23: Arduino Code

This distance calculation is for our Second traffic light. Now we will use the if loop to check our distance value.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 24: Arduino Code

If the value falls between our set limit for the loop, the signal will turn green for three seconds. This will also be displayed on the LCD.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working, Figure 25: Arduino Code

After that in our if loop, the yellow lights 2 and 3 will turn on to indicate transition.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 26: Arduino Code

Now we will use the if loop to check our distance value.

If the value falls between our set limit for the loop of intermediate traffic, the signal will turn green for two seconds. This will also be displayed on the LCD.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 27: Arduino Code

After that in our if loop, the yellow lights 2 and 3 will turn on to indicate transition.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 28: Arduino Code

Now we will use the if loop to check our distance value again.

If the value falls between our set limit for the loop of low traffic, the signal will turn green for one second. This will also be displayed on the LCD.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 29: Arduino Code

After that in our if loop, the yellow lights 2 and 3 will turn on to indicate transition.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working, Figure 30: Arduino Code

Now we will set the trigger pin of the third ultrasonic sensor to low and high. This would generate a pulse and send out a wave. After that, we will read a pulse input from the echo pin. This will give us the duration in which the wave was propagated and returned. After that we will calculate the distance from the duration of the wave.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 31: Arduino Code

This distance calculation is for our third traffic light. Now we will use the if loop to check our distance value.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 32: Arduino Code

If the value falls between our set limit for the loop, the signal will turn green for three seconds. This will also be displayed on the LCD.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 33: Arduino Code

After that in our if loop, the yellow lights 3 and 4 will turn on to indicate transition.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 34: Arduino Code

Now we will use the if loop to check our distance value.

If the value falls between our set limit for the loop of intermediate traffic, the signal will turn green for two seconds. This will also be displayed on the LCD.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working, Figure 35: Arduino Code

After that in our if loop, the yellow lights 3 and 4 will turn on to indicate transition.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 36: Arduino Code

Now we will use the if loop to check our distance value again.

If the value falls between our set limit for the loop of low traffic, the signal will turn green for one second. This will also be displayed on the LCD.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 37: Arduino Code

After that in our if loop, the yellow lights 3 and 4 will turn on to indicate transition.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 38: Arduino Code

Now we will set the trigger pin of the fourth ultrasonic sensor to low and high. This would generate a pulse and send out a wave. After that, we will read a pulse input from the echo pin. This will give us the duration in which the wave was propagated and returned. After that, we will calculate the distance from the duration of the wave.

Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 39: Arduino Code

This distance calculation is for our fourth traffic light. Now we will use the if loop to check our distance value.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working, Figure 40: Arduino Code

If the value falls between our set limit for the loop, the signal will turn green for three seconds. This will also be displayed on the LCD.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 41: Arduino Code

After that in our if loop, the yellow lights 4 and 1 will turn on to indicate transition.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 42: Arduino Code

Now we will use the if loop to check our distance value.

If the value falls between our set limit for the loop of intermediate traffic, the signal will turn green for two seconds. This will also be displayed on the LCD.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working, Figure 43: Arduino Code

After that in our if loop, the yellow lights 4 and 1 will turn on to indicate transition.

Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 44: Arduino Code

Now we will use the if loop to check our distance value again.

If the value falls between our set limit for the loop of low traffic, the signal will turn green for one second. This will also be displayed on the LCD.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 45: Arduino Code

After that in our if loop, the yellow lights 4 and 1 will turn on to indicate transition.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 46: Arduino Code

Results/Working:

At first, after writing the code, generate its hex file and put that hex file on the Arduino board on your Proteus software. After that, run the simulation. The results of the simulation are shown below thoroughly.

At first, when sensor one gives the output within 500 cm, the traffic light will turn on for one second only.

Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 47: Simulation Results

However, if the sensor one value is between 500 and 900 cm, the traffic light 1 will be green for 2 seconds with the LCD displaying the remaining time.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 48: Simulation Results

If the sensor values are above 900 cm, then the lights will be green for 3 seconds.

Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working, Figure 49: Simulation Results

When the sensor two gives the output within 500 cm, traffic light 2 will turn on for one second only.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 50: Simulation Results

However, if the sensor two value is between 500 and 900 cm, the traffic light 2 will be green for 2 seconds with the LCD displaying the remaining time.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 51: Simulation Results

If the sensor values are above 900 cm, then the lights will be green for 3 seconds.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 52: Simulation Results

When sensor three gives the output within 500 cm, traffic light 3 will turn on for one second only.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working, Figure 53: Simulation Results

However, if the sensor three value is between 500 and 900 cm, the traffic light 3 will be green for 2 seconds with the LCD displaying the remaining time.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 54: Simulation Results

If the sensor values are above 900 cm, then the lights will be green for 3 seconds.

Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 55: Simulation Results

When sensor four gives the output within 500 cm, traffic light 4 will turn on for one second only.

Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 56: Simulation Results

However, if the sensor four value is between 500 and 900 cm, the traffic light 4 will be green for 2 seconds with the LCD displaying the remaining time.

Variable 4 way traffic light, Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 57: Simulation Results

If the sensor values are above 900 cm, then the lights will be green for 3 seconds.

Software to install, Project overview, Components needed, Arduino mega, Proteus simulation of variable traffic lights, Arduino code, declaration code, void loop, void setup, Results/working,

Figure 58: Simulation Results

Phew! I know that this was an extremely long project, but that is a part of an engineer’s life. Multiple receptions and running recurring patterns smoothly requires skill and patience only an engineer can possess. I hope you guys made it through. Kudos to your nerves of steel. Thanks for reading.

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